为什么,会有mysql的主主复制。因为在一些高可用的环境中,mysql的主从不能满足现实中的一些实际需求。比如,一些流量大的网站数据库访问有了瓶颈,需要负载均衡的时候就用两个或者多个的mysql服务器,而这些mysql服务器的数据库数据必须要保持一致,那么就会用到主主复制。

mysql主从架构中其实就一个主在工作,而从就相当于一个备份机器,从通过日志监测的方式来备份主库上的数据而保证主库的数据安全。在这种架构中如果从上的数据做了改变,主数据是不会用任何变化的。因为mysql主从架构主要是mysql从监控mysql主的日志变化来实现同步,相反的在这个架构中主并没有监控从的日志变化。所以,mysql从数据反生变化,主也就没有什么变化了。

通过上述描述,可以看到如果想实现主主复制,无非就是在mysql主从架构上让mysql主实现监测从的日志变化,从而实现两台机器相互同步

实验环境:两台服务器:

主机名:HA1,HA2(呵呵,这个主机名是英文缩写High availability,高可用的意思)

ip:192.168.1.231

192.168.1.232

主机系统:centos6.4

mysql版本5.5.22

首先,看下HA1(192.168.1.231)的mysql配置文件

vim /etc/my.cnf
# Example MySQL config file for very large systems.
#
# This is for a large system with memory of 1G-2G where the system runs mainly
# MySQL.
#
# MySQL programs look for option files in a set of
# locations which depend on the deployment platform.
# You can copy this option file to one of those
# locations. For information about these locations, see:
# http://dev.mysql.com/doc/mysql/en/option-files.html
#
# In this file, you can use all long options that a program supports.
# If you want to know which options a program supports, run the program
# with the "--help" option.
# The following options will be passed to all MySQL clients
[client]
#password       = your_password
port            = 3306
socket          = /usr/local/mysql/tmp/mysql.sock
# Here follows entries for some specific programs
# The MySQL server
[mysqld]
port            = 3306
socket          = /usr/local/mysql/tmp/mysql.sock
skip-external-locking
key_buffer_size = 384M
max_allowed_packet = 1M
table_open_cache = 512
sort_buffer_size = 2M
read_buffer_size = 2M
read_rnd_buffer_size = 8M
myisam_sort_buffer_size = 64M
thread_cache_size = 8
query_cache_size = 32M
# Try number of CPU's*2 for thread_concurrency
thread_concurrency = 8
# Don't listen on a TCP/IP port at all. This can be a security enhancement,
# if all processes that need to connect to mysqld run on the same host.
# All interaction with mysqld must be made via Unix sockets or named pipes.
# Note that using this option without enabling named pipes on Windows
# (via the "enable-named-pipe" option) will render mysqld useless!
#
#skip-networking
# Replication Master Server (default)
# binary logging is required for replication
log-bin=mysql-bin
log-slave-updates
# required unique id between 1 and 2^32 - 1
# defaults to 1 if master-host is not set
# but will not function as a master if omitted
server-id = 1

在这个配置文件中,需要特别注意的三处地方:

log-bin=mysql-bin:这个选项基本默认都是开着的,如果没有打开,可以手动打开。

log-slave-updates:这个选项特别的重要它是为了让slave也能充当master,同时也为了更好的服务于 m-m + s 的环境,保证slave挂在任何一台master上都会接收到另一个master的写入信息。当然不局限于这个架构,级联复制的架构同样也需要log-slave-updates的支持。

server-id = 1:这个ID为服务器ID如果配置一样会出现冲突,而不能复制

接着再看下HA2(192.168.1.232)的mysql配置文件

vim /etc/my.cnf
# Example MySQL config file for very large systems.
#
# This is for a large system with memory of 1G-2G where the system runs mainly
# MySQL.
#
# MySQL programs look for option files in a set of
# locations which depend on the deployment platform.
# You can copy this option file to one of those
# locations. For information about these locations, see:
# http://dev.mysql.com/doc/mysql/en/option-files.html
#
# In this file, you can use all long options that a program supports.
# If you want to know which options a program supports, run the program
# with the "--help" option.
# The following options will be passed to all MySQL clients
[client]
#password       = your_password
port            = 3306
socket          = /usr/local/mysql/tmp/mysql.sock
# Here follows entries for some specific programs
# The MySQL server
[mysqld]
port            = 3306
socket          = /usr/local/mysql/tmp/mysql.sock
skip-external-locking
key_buffer_size = 384M
max_allowed_packet = 1M
table_open_cache = 512
sort_buffer_size = 2M
read_buffer_size = 2M
read_rnd_buffer_size = 8M
myisam_sort_buffer_size = 64M
thread_cache_size = 8
query_cache_size = 32M
# Try number of CPU's*2 for thread_concurrency
thread_concurrency = 8
# Don't listen on a TCP/IP port at all. This can be a security enhancement,
# if all processes that need to connect to mysqld run on the same host.
# All interaction with mysqld must be made via Unix sockets or named pipes.
# Note that using this option without enabling named pipes on Windows
# (via the "enable-named-pipe" option) will render mysqld useless!
#
#skip-networking
# Replication Master Server (default)
# binary logging is required for replication
log-bin=mysql-bin
log-slave-updates
# required unique id between 1 and 2^32 - 1
# defaults to 1 if master-host is not set
# but will not function as a master if omitted
server-id = 10
# Replication Slave (comment out master section to use this)

在HA2的mysql配置文件中,除了server-id不一样,其他几乎一模一样。配置文件写好后,我们把两台服务器上的mysql服务器启动起来。

首先,登录HA2(192.168.1.232)的mysql中,查看master状态

mysql> show master status;
+------------------+----------+--------------+------------------+
| File | Position | Binlog_Do_DB | Binlog_Ignore_DB |
+------------------+----------+--------------+------------------+
| mysql-bin.000016 |      615 |              |                  |
+------------------+----------+--------------+------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
mysql>

然后,登录HA1(192.168.1.231)的msyql中,把HA2配置成自己的主,在做这个之前先在两台机器的mysql中建立一个可以复制用的帐号:

 

mysql>grant all on *.* to duyunlong@'192.168.1.%' identified by '123456';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)
mysql>change master to master_host='192.168.1.232',master_user='duyunlong',master_password='123456',master_log_file='mysql-bin.000016',master_log_pos=615;

同上,查看HA1(192.168.1.231)master,然后登录HA2(192.168.1.232),把HA1(192.168.1.231),配置成自己的主,然后分别在两台机器的mysql中,启动slave

启动后HA1状态

 

mysql> show slave status G;
*************************** 1. row ***************************
Slave_IO_State: Waiting for master to send event
Master_Host: 192.168.1.232
Master_User: duyunlong
Master_Port: 3306
Connect_Retry: 60
Master_Log_File: mysql-bin.000016
Read_Master_Log_Pos: 615
Relay_Log_File: HA1-relay-bin.000002
Relay_Log_Pos: 346
Relay_Master_Log_File: mysql-bin.000016
Slave_IO_Running: Yes
Slave_SQL_Running: Yes
Replicate_Do_DB:
Replicate_Ignore_DB:
Replicate_Do_Table:
Replicate_Ignore_Table:
Replicate_Wild_Do_Table:
Replicate_Wild_Ignore_Table:
Last_Errno: 0
Last_Error:
Skip_Counter: 0
Exec_Master_Log_Pos: 615
Relay_Log_Space: 500
Until_Condition: None
Until_Log_File:
Until_Log_Pos: 0
Master_SSL_Allowed: No
Master_SSL_CA_File:
Master_SSL_CA_Path:
Master_SSL_Cert:
Master_SSL_Cipher:
Master_SSL_Key:
Seconds_Behind_Master: 0
Master_SSL_Verify_Server_Cert: No
Last_IO_Errno: 0
Last_IO_Error:
Last_SQL_Errno: 0
Last_SQL_Error:
Replicate_Ignore_Server_Ids:
Master_Server_Id: 10
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
ERROR:
No query specified

可以看到 Slave_IO_Running: Yes

Slave_SQL_Running: Yes

然后在看HA2的状态:

 

mysql> show slave status G;
*************************** 1. row ***************************
Slave_IO_State: Waiting for master to send event
Master_Host: 192.168.1.231
Master_User: duyunlong
Master_Port: 3306
Connect_Retry: 60
Master_Log_File: mysql-bin.000018
Read_Master_Log_Pos: 552
Relay_Log_File: HA2-relay-bin.000002
Relay_Log_Pos: 441
Relay_Master_Log_File: mysql-bin.000018
Slave_IO_Running: Yes
Slave_SQL_Running: Yes
Replicate_Do_DB:
Replicate_Ignore_DB:
Replicate_Do_Table:
Replicate_Ignore_Table:
Replicate_Wild_Do_Table:
Replicate_Wild_Ignore_Table:
Last_Errno: 0
Last_Error:
Skip_Counter: 0
Exec_Master_Log_Pos: 552
Relay_Log_Space: 595
Until_Condition: None
Until_Log_File:
Until_Log_Pos: 0
Master_SSL_Allowed: No
Master_SSL_CA_File:
Master_SSL_CA_Path:
Master_SSL_Cert:
Master_SSL_Cipher:
Master_SSL_Key:
Seconds_Behind_Master: 0
Master_SSL_Verify_Server_Cert: No
Last_IO_Errno: 0
Last_IO_Error:
Last_SQL_Errno: 0
Last_SQL_Error:
Replicate_Ignore_Server_Ids:
Master_Server_Id: 1
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
ERROR:
No query specified

可以看到Slave_IO_Running: Yes

Slave_SQL_Running: Yes

接下来,我们要测试,是不是已经可以主主复制了呢,首先登录HA1(192.168.1.231)的mysql中,建立一数据库,当然在测试前我们先看下,两台服务器中的mysql中有哪些数据

首先看下HA1(192.168.1.231)

[root@HA1 ~]# mysql mysql -uduyunlong -p123456 -h192.168.1.231 -e ‘show databases;’

+——————–+

| Database           |

+——————–+

| information_schema |

| mysql              |

| performance_schema |

| test               |

| wanghaipeng        |

+——————–+

[root@HA1 ~]#

再看下HA2(192.168.1.232)

[root@HA2 ~]# mysql mysql -uduyunlong -p123456 -h192.168.1.232 -e ‘show databases;’

+——————–+

| Database           |

+——————–+

| information_schema |

| mysql              |

| performance_schema |

| test               |

| wanghaipeng        |

+——————–+

[root@HA2 ~]#

可以看到,现在两台服务器上的mysql中数据是一样的,接下来在HA中建立一数据库“a”,再看结果

[root@HA1 ~]# mysql mysql -uduyunlong -p123456 -h192.168.1.231 -e ‘create database a;’

[root@HA1 ~]# mysql mysql -uduyunlong -p123456 -h192.168.1.231 -e ‘show databases;’

+——————–+

| Database           |

+——————–+

| information_schema |

| a                  |

| mysql              |

| performance_schema |

| test               |

| wanghaipeng        |

+——————–+

[root@HA1 ~]#

然后看下HA2(192.168.1.232)是不是会把刚建立的数据库“a”复制过来

[root@HA2 ~]# mysql mysql -uduyunlong -p123456 -h192.168.1.232 -e ‘show databases;’

+——————–+

| Database           |

+——————–+

| information_schema |

| a                  |

| mysql              |

| performance_schema |

| test               |

| wanghaipeng        |

+——————–+

可以看到,数据库“a”已经成功复制过来了,反过来我们在HA2(192.168.1.232)上建立一数据库“b”看是否HA1也可以复制过去

 

[root@HA2 ~]# mysql mysql -uduyunlong -p123456 -h192.168.1.232 -e ‘create database b;’

[root@HA2 ~]# mysql mysql -uduyunlong -p123456 -h192.168.1.232 -e ‘show databases;’

+——————–+

| Database           |

+——————–+

| information_schema |

| a                  |

| b                  |

| mysql              |

| performance_schema |

| test               |

| wanghaipeng        |

+——————–+

[root@HA2 ~]#

然后登录HA1(192.168.1.231),查看是否复制成功

[root@HA1 ~]# mysql mysql -uduyunlong -p123456 -h192.168.1.231 -e ‘show databases;’

+——————–+

| Database           |

+——————–+

| information_schema |

| a                  |

| b                  |

| mysql              |

| performance_schema |

| test               |

| wanghaipeng        |

+——————–+

[root@HA1 ~]#

在HA1(192.168.1.231)可以看到数据库“b”已经复制过来了。

那么到此,主主复制架构已经陈功!

发表评论

电子邮件地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.